Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal make a doable circuit.
Also consider the Mahakuta and Banashanhari temples.
Assuming you are basing at Badami, you can make a short detour to Mahahuta on the way to Pattadakal from Badami. Similarly, Banashankari can be covered on the way back from the Pattadakal to Badami.
The Badami to Pattadakal distance is about 22km. If you make a dtour via Mahakuta, It's a couple of km more.
Banshankari to Pattadakal distance is about 17k and Banshhankari to Badami distance is about 5km.
Also note, the Badami Railway station is about 5km north of the Badami Caves site.
Aihole is 15km north of Pattadakal.
Hampi at a distance of 150km southeast of Badami is another major destination around this circuit.
Well, this is piece for those of you who are new to the concepts of Hinduism. To that extend this is an oversimplified narration to make the understanding easier. For those who are keen to know more, the scope and resources are endless. So that's a disclaimer to begin with! Though it is referred with a single common name , Hinduism, it is in fact a conglomeration of many sects, sub sects , often with its own pantheons, beliefs and religious practices. Unlike many religions, Hinduism doesn't have definite a founder. The religion practically 'evolved' over 4000 years or so into its present form.
Dedicated after Shiva, Kadasiddheswara Temple is the first temple you will be visiting as you enter the Pattadakal site. In size this temple is much smaller than say the Virupaksha Temple or the Mallikarjuna Temple , located further deep in the site. Possibly this temple was constructed during the regime of the Chalukya king Vijayaditya (696 - 733 CE). And this temple remains as an example of one of the earliest experiments the Chalukya clans did in the temple architecture. Otherwise this is built in what is called the Nagara style of architecture.